WHO Disease Outbreak NewsСр, 27 мая Текст источника в новой вкладке
WHO disease outbreak news
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1. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) – EthiopiaПн, 25 мая[−]
Between 2 and 8 April 2020, six suspected human cases of dracunculiasis in Duli village, Gog district, Gambella region, Ethiopia, were reported to WHO.

2. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 21 мая[−]
From 13 to 19 May 2020, no new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been reported from North Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

3. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 14 мая[−]
From 6 to 12 May 2020, no new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been reported from North Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Figure 1). Since the resurgence of the outbreak on 10 April 2020, seven confirmed cases have been reported from Kasanga, Malepe and Kanzulinzuli Health Areas in Beni Health Zone. Of these, one is receiving care at the Beni Ebola treatment centre (ETC), one who was receiving care at the ETC recovered and was discharged, and one remains in the community, 35 days after symptom onset. Efforts to locate this individual are being undertaken to test and provide care for this person. Four of the people confirmed to have Ebola died, including two community deaths and two deaths in the ETC in Beni. So far, no definitive source of infection has been identified.

As of 12 May, 90 contacts are currently under surveillance, of which 41 are high-risk contacts who had direct contact with body fluids of the last confirmed case. All contacts have exited their high-risk period (seven to 13 days after last exposure). Contacts from the previous six cases reported in April have exited their follow-up period. Of the 41 high-risk contacts, 37 have been vaccinated. A total of 1486 people have been vaccinated in Beni and Karisimbi since 10 April 2020.

4. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 07 мая[−]
From 29 April to 5 May 2020, no new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been reported from North Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

5. Measles – BurundiСр, 06 мая[−]
Burundi has been experiencing an increase in the number of confirmed cases of measles since November 2019. This outbreak initially started in a refugee transit camp (Centre de transit de Cishemere, Cibitoke Health district), whose inhabitants had arrived from measles-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Refugees spend 21 days in the Transit Camp of Cishemere before they are sent to permanent camps in Nyankanda and Bwagiriza refugee camps in Butezi, Kavumu camp of Cankuzo, Garsowe camp of Muyinga and Mulumba camp at Kiremba.

The outbreak was identified when suspected measles cases had been reported by the local residents in the surrounding areas, highlighting pockets of under-vaccinated populations. According to WHO/UNICEF 2018 estimates, measles first dose vaccination coverage is relatively high (88%), and slightly lower for the second dose (77%). However, this does not reflect the vaccination coverage of incoming refugees.

6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi ArabiaВт, 05 мая[−]
From 1 through 31 March 2020, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 15 additional cases of MERS-CoV infection, including five associated deaths. The cases were reported from Riyadh (7 cases), Makkah (4 cases), Najran (3 cases), and Al Qassim (1 case) regions.

The link below provides details of the 15 reported cases.

7. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 30 апр[−]
From 22 to 28 April 2020, one new confirmed case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) was reported from Beni Health Zone in North Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Figure 1). This person was listed as a contact of a confirmed case, a family member who was reported on 17 April. The person was vaccinated on 20 April and was followed by the contact tracing team, though not on a regular basis due to insecurity.

Since the resurgence of the outbreak on 10 April 2020, seven confirmed cases have been reported, all from Beni Health Zone. Of these, one is receiving care at the Beni Ebola treatment centre (ETC), one who was receiving care at the ETC recovered and was discharged, and one remains in the community. Response teams are engaging with the community in order to try to bring that person to the ETC for access to treatment and supportive care, and to prevent further transmission in the community. Four of the people confirmed to have Ebola died, including two community deaths and two deaths in the ETC in Beni.

8. Measles – MexicoПт, 24 апр[−]
Mexico is experiencing a measles outbreak. Between 1 January and 2 April 2020, 1,364 probable1cases of measles were reported, of which 124 were laboratory confirmed, 991 were discarded and 328 remain under investigation. The age of the confirmed measles cases ranged from three months to 68 years (median=20 years), and 59% were male. Analysis conducted by the National Reference Laboratory (InDRE) identified the genotype D8 (similar to other countries in the Region), linage MVs/GirSomnath.IND/42.16/ for 17 of the confirmed cases.

Of the 124 confirmed cases, 105 were in Mexico City, 18 in Mexico State, and one in Campeche State; the following is a summary of the epidemiological situation in each:

9. Dengue fever – Mayotte, FranceЧт, 23 апр[−]
Through event-based surveillance performed throughout 2019, WHO became aware of a dengue outbreak in Mayotte, France, since July 2019.

10. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 23 апр[−]
From 15 to 21 April 2020, three new confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) were reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, all from Beni Health Zone in North Kivu Province (Figure 1).

11. Yellow fever – EthiopiaСр, 22 апр[−]
On 3 March 2020, the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) reported three suspected yellow fever cases in Enor Ener Woreda, Gurage zone, SNNPR. The three reported cases were members of the same household (father, mother and son) located in a rural kebele. Two of three samples tested positive at national level by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and were subsequently confirmed positive by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) at the regional reference laboratory, Uganda Viral Research Institute (UVRI) on 28 March 2020.

In response to the positive RT-PCR results, the EPHI and Ministry of Health performed an in-depth investigation and response, supported by partners including WHO.

12. Yellow fever – Republic of South SudanСб, 18 апр[−]
On 3 March 2020, a WHO supported cross-border rapid response investigation identified two presumptive positive cases of yellow fever in Kajo Keji county, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The initial Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing conducted at the National Public Health Laboratory in Juba, South Sudan tuned out negative. However, following further testing, both the cases were confirmed positive for yellow fever by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) at the regional reference laboratory, Uganda Viral Research Institute (UVRI) on 28 March.

The investigation was mounted in response to the recently declared outbreak in bordering Moyo district, Uganda. During the investigation, the team collected 41 blood samples from five villages which were in close proximity to the bordering Moyo district, Uganda. Of the 41 individuals whose samples were collected, nine (22%) had history of fever, but none had history of jaundice. The individuals represented a spectrum of occupations typical for the area (farming, forestry, homemaker, soldier). Most of the individuals investigated were between 20-45 years of age, and 18 (44%) of these individuals were female.

13. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 16 апр[−]
From 10 to 14 April 2020, three new confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) were reported in the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Figure 1).

14. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 09 апр[−]
No new cases have been reported in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 17 February 2020 (Figure 1).

15. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – The Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaСр, 08 апр[−]
From 1 through 29 February 2020, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 18 additional cases of MERS-CoV infection, including five associated deaths. The cases were reported from Riyadh (seven cases), Hafer Albatin (two cases), Najran (two cases), Eastern (two cases), Aljouf (one case), Makkah (one case), Hail (one case), Taif (one case) and Jeddah (one case) regions. Among reported cases of MERS-CoV infection, majority (16 cases) were male, and only two cases were female. The age of reported cases ranged from 34 to 81 years. No cases were reported among healthcare workers.

The link below provides details of the 18 reported cases.

16. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 02 апр[−]
Since 17 February 2020, no new cases have been reported in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. While this is a positive development, there is still a high risk of re-emergence of EVD given the current challenges related to limited resources amidst other local and global emergencies, continued insecurity and population displacement in previous hotspots, and limited access to some affected communities. It is therefore critical to maintain surveillance and response operations in the period leading up to the declaration of the end of the outbreak, as well as after the declaration – as outlined in the WHO recommended criteria for declaring the end of the EVD outbreak.

Ongoing outbreak response efforts continue, which include investigating and validating new alert cases, supporting appropriate care and rapid diagnosis of suspected cases (which continue to be detected), supporting survivors through a multi-disciplinary programme, and strategically transitioning activities. From 24 to 31 March, an average of 4082 alerts were reported and investigated daily. Of these alerts, 274 were validated as suspected cases, requiring specialized care and laboratory testing to rule-out EVD. From 23 to 29 March, 2376 samples were tested including: 1322 blood samples from alive, suspected cases; 365 swabs from community deaths; and 689 samples from re-tested patients. Overall, laboratory activity decreased by 14% compared to the prior week.

17. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 26 мар[−]
No new cases have been reported in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 17 February 2020 (Figure 1).

18. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 19 мар[−]
There have been no new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) reported in the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 17 February 2020. However, because there is still a risk of re-emergence of EVD, it is critical to maintain surveillance and response operations until and after the end of outbreak declaration – as outlined in the WHO recommended criteria for declaring the end of the EVD outbreak.

Unfortunately, the response faces increasing limitations that could result in delayed detection and control of flare-ups. These limitations include a funding shortfall, ongoing insecurity and lack of access to some areas, and limited staffing and resources amidst other local and global emergencies.

19. Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the CongoЧт, 12 мар[−]
It has been over 21 days since the last confirmed case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been reported (Figure 1). On 9 March, the last 46 contacts finished their follow-up. These are important milestones in the outbreak as over one maximum incubation period has passed without any confirmed cases of EVD. However, there is still a high risk of re-emergence of EVD, and a critical need to maintain response operations – as outlined in the WHO recommended criteria for declaring the end of the EVD outbreak.

Extensive surveillance, pathogen detection, clinical management and other response activities are currently ongoing. These include, but are not limited to, investigating and validating new alert cases, supporting appropriate care and rapid diagnostics of suspected cases which continue to be detected each day, and supporting survivors through a multi-disciplinary programme to help mitigate potential risks of re-emergence. Over the course of the past week (4–10 March 2020), over 32 000 alerts were reported and investigated, and 2584 alerts were validated as suspected cases; requiring specialized care and laboratory testing to rule-out EVD. From 2 to 8 March, 2818 samples were tested including: 1574 blood samples from alive, suspected cases; 376 swabs from community deaths; and 868 samples from re-tested patients. Overall, this was a 16% decrease in testing compared to the previous week.

20. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – QatarЧт, 12 мар[−]
On 18 February 2020, the National IHR Focal Point for Qatar reported one laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection (MERS-CoV) to WHO.


 
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