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 Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Scienceнет даты
The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from Phys.org

 
 
1. Long-hypothesized 'next generation wonder material' created for first timeСб, 21 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
For over a decade, scientists have attempted to synthesize a new form of carbon called graphyne with limited success. That endeavor is now at an end, though, thanks to new research from the University of Colorado Boulder.

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2. Researchers demonstrate organic crystals can serve as energy converters for emerging technologiesПт, 20 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
New research by a team of researchers at the NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) Smart Materials Lab published today in the journal Nature Communications demonstrates that organic crystals, a new class of smart engineering materials, can serve as efficient and sustainable energy conversion materials for advanced technologies such as robotics and electronics.

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3. PFAS chemicals do not last foreverПт, 20 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Once dubbed "forever chemicals," per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS, might be in the market for a new nickname.

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4. Researchers unveil a secret of stronger metalsПт, 20 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Forming metal into the shapes needed for various purposes can be done in many ways, including casting, machining, rolling, and forging. These processes affect the sizes and shapes of the tiny crystalline grains that make up the bulk metal, whether it be steel, aluminum or other widely used metals and alloys.

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5. Engineers evaluate the factors affecting battery performance at low temperaturesПт, 20 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Energy storage with rechargeable battery technologies powers our digital lifestyles and supports renewable energy integration into the power grid. However, battery function under cold conditions is an ongoing challenge, motivating researchers to improve low temperature performance of batteries. Aqueous batteries (in a liquid solution) do better than non-aqueous batteries in terms of rate capability (a measure of energy discharged per unit of time) at low temperatures.

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6. Researchers detect a novel binding mechanism between small and gigantic particlesПт, 20 мая[-/+]
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Researchers at the 5th Physical Institute of the University of Stuttgart have verified a novel binding mechanism forming a molecule between a tiny charged particle and a gigantic (in molecular terms) Rydberg atom. The scientists observed the molecule with the help of a self-built ion microscope. The results are published in Nature.

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7. Biocompatible binary hologram with drug-elution capabilitiesПт, 20 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Holographic devices are used for security enhancement, entertainment, 3D display technologies and augmented reality and more. Due to their high information capacity, the ability to track ongoing external processes by assessing changes in the diffraction pattern, as well as well-established and simple methods for their production from various materials, holograms are finding new applications in various fields.

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8. A new idea for refining biocrudeЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
The high content of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) in biocrude obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae is one of the most concerning issues on the applications and environment. The biocrude obtained by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) needs further refining optimization, and the high concentration of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds such as quinoline, pyridine, etc., will poison the catalyst used in the refining process, so that the deactivation of the catalyst will cause great difficulties in refining the biocrude. Moreover, NOCs and sulfides have a competitive relationship in the desulfurization process of biocrude, which inhibits the desulfurization effect. Although there have been many studies on tackling nitrogen-related problems and analyzing reaction mechanisms for some key reactions, there is still no complete and systematic investigation on the overall nitrogen pathway during HTL process.

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9. Broadening the scope of epoxide ring opening reactions with zirconoceneЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
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Epoxides belong to a class of organic compounds called "cyclic ethers" that are characterized by a three-atom ring. They are readily available compounds found in medicinal and agrochemical agents, as well as natural products. Epoxides are a valuable industrial precursor as they allow the synthesis of a diverse range of important alcohols, functional polymers, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals through a reductive ring-opening reaction. For the last 30 years, titanocene(III) has been the representative, unique catalyst for catalyzing the ring-opening reaction. However, titanocene-catalyzed reactions are regioselective, meaning some products are preferred over others. In its case, the preferred products are those obtained from more stable radicals (as opposed to less stable radicals). The mechanism underlying this regioselectivity is still unclear.

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10. Researchers develop new measurement method in molecular electronicsЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
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In molecular electronics, single molecules are stretched between two electrodes to form an electrically conducting element in which molecular conductivity is then measured. Although the underlying method for this phenomenon, scanning tunneling microscopy, was awarded the Nobel Prize more than thirty years ago, a major limitation remains: To access molecular conductivity, the molecules to be measured had to be permanently attached to the inorganic gold electrodes, usually via sulfur bridges.

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11. New findings enable monitoring for harmful toxin in freshwater environmentsЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
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An international team of scientists has identified the genes and the biosynthetic pathway that enable certain types of cyanobacteria found in freshwater environments to produce a potent neurotoxin called guanitoxin.

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12. New mechanism for regulating supply of DNA building blocks for better antibioticsЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
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In a new study published in Nature Communications, researchers from Stockholm University show for the first time how NrdR binds to DNA to inhibit RNR. The novel mechanism could help scientists design better antibiotics by targeting a pathogen's ability to reproduce.

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13. Recycling more precious metals from nuclear and electronic waste using the Picasso pigment, Prussian blueЧт, 19 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
A big problem with the disposal of nuclear and electronic wastes is that the process wastes precious metals such as gold and platinum-group metals, which are key metals in computer chips. Researchers form Nagoya University in collaboration with those from the Tokyo Institute of Technology have discovered that a solution to this pressing environmental and technological problem may lie in a pigment named Prussian blue. Using their technique, gold could be extracted from electronic waste, such as smart phones, in amounts 10 to 80 times greater than can be obtained from natural ores.

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14. Researchers magnify hidden biological structures by combining SRS and expansion microscopyСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
A research team from Carnegie Mellon University and Columbia have combined two emerging imaging technologies to better view a wide range of biomolecules, including proteins, lipids and DNA, at the nanoscale. Their technique, which brings together expansion microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, is detailed in Advanced Science.

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15. Engineers show how tungsten oxide can be used as a catalyst in sustainable chemical conversionsСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Engineers rely on catalysts for a vast array of applications from food manufacturing to chemical production, so finding efficient, environmentally friendly catalysts is an important avenue of research.

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16. Engineering team creates monitoring toolkit to speed production of biologic drugsСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Two Rutgers University engineers specializing in the process of making drugs derived from living organisms have created an analytical tool they expect will accelerate the discovery and production of biologic drugs that are often at the cutting edge of biomedical research.

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17. Discovery uncovers need for ammonia emission regulationsСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
A discovery by former Carnegie Mellon Ph.D. student, Mingyi Wang, leading a large collaborative team, sheds light on one way new particles are forming in the upper troposphere. The study, published in Nature, reveals an unexpected volatile reaction between nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, synergistically creating new particles at a rapid rate. The findings suggest that in addition to carbon dioxide, there are other compounds in need of attention and regulation.

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18. Graphene-wrapped zeolite membranes for fast hydrogen separationСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
The effects of global warming are becoming more serious, and there is a strong demand for technological advances to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Hydrogen is an ideal clean energy which produces water when burned. To promote the use of hydrogen energy, it is essential to develop safe, energy-saving technologies for hydrogen production and storage. Currently, hydrogen is made from natural gas, so it is not appropriate for decarbonization. Using a lot of energy to separate hydrogen would not make it qualify as clean energy.

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19. New advances for reducing defects in multimaterials using directed energy depositionСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Materials used in the fields of aerospace, automobiles, medical equipment and defense need to withstand extremely harsh environments. Small flaws in the materials, i.e. cracks, can lead to catastrophic consequences and massive economic loss. However, most materials cannot handle such high temperatures and pressures. Multimaterials, like functionally graded materials (FGMs), which combine different materials to produce improved performance, are ideal in these situations.

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20. Researchers create photonic materials for powerful, efficient light-based computingСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
University of Central Florida researchers are developing new photonic materials that could one day help enable low power, ultra-fast, light-based computing.

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21. Ultrahigh piezoelectric performance demonstrated in ceramic materialsСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
The ability of piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa makes them useful for various applications from robotics to communication to sensors. A new design strategy for creating ultrahigh-performing piezoelectric ceramics opens the door to even more beneficial uses for these materials, according to a team of researchers from Penn State and Michigan Technological University.

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22. Scientists develop a material for use in radiation-tolerant devicesСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Russian scientists have developed a unique material based on halide perovskites for use in high-speed and highly sensitive ionizing radiation detectors. The study has been published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

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23. Enzyme breaks down PET plastic in record timeСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Plastic bottles, punnets, wrap—lightweight packaging made of PET plastic becomes a problem if it is not recycled. Scientists at Leipzig University have now discovered a highly efficient enzyme that degrades PET in record time. The enzyme PHL7, which the researchers found in a compost heap in Leipzig, could make biological PET recycling possible much faster than previously thought. The findings have now been published in the scientific journal ChemSusChem and selected as the cover topic.

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24. New material can 'capture toxic pollutants from air'Ср, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Researchers at University of Limerick have developed a new material that has the ability to capture toxic chemicals from the air.

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25. New protein structures to aid rational drug designСр, 18 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
In a major advance for rational drug design, a Texas A&M AgriLife team has described several protein structures of a crucial player in cellular processes. The advance could bring new ideas for treatments of diseases such as Alzheimer's, AIDS, cancer and others.

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26. Organic polymeric scintillators excite the X-ray communityВт, 17 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
X-ray detection is of great importance in diverse applications, such as radiation detection, medical diagnosis, and security inspection. A popular way to achieve X-ray detection is to integrate a photodetector with a luminescent material called a scintillator, which emits energy in the form of light. Scintillators can convert high-energy X-ray photons to low-energy visible luminescence.

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27. New technology dramatically increases the recovery rate of precious metals from wasteВт, 17 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
In South Korea, which relies on imports for 99.3% of its metal resources, the per capita consumption of those metal resources is the highest in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and consumption of precious metals in industries such as renewable energy, healthcare and semiconductors is increasing. Gold is in demand for applications such as batteries, electric vehicles and renewable energy in the electric and electronic industries, but is a big variable in the industry due to its limited availability and high cost. Thus, research on urban mining, which extracts precious metals from waste, is being actively conducted around the world. However, most of the technologies for extracting high-purity gold from waste resources require large amounts of chemicals and high operating temperatures; therefore, it has regulatory and efficiency problems.

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28. How three mutations work together to spur new SARS-CoV-2 variantsВт, 17 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Like storm waves battering a ship, new versions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have buffeted the world one after another. Recently, scientists keeping tabs on these variants noticed a trend: Many carry the same set of three mutations. In a new study in ACS' Biochemistry, researchers examined how these mutations change the way a key piece of the virus functions. Their experiments show how this triad alters traits it needs to cause and sustain COVID-19 infection.

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29. Scientists nail down 'destination' for protein that delivers zincВт, 17 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
Most people don't think much about zinc. But all living things need zinc for survival. This trace element helps many proteins fold into the right shapes to do their jobs. And in proteins known as enzymes, zinc helps catalyze chemical reactions—including many important for providing energy to cells. If zinc is absent, people, pets, and plants don't thrive.

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30. Using bacteria to accelerate CO2 capture in oceansВт, 17 мая[-/+]
Категория(?)  
You may be familiar with direct air capture, or DAC, in which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere in an effort to slow the effects of climate change. Now a scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has proposed a scheme for direct ocean capture. Removing CO2 from the oceans will enable them to continue to do their job of absorbing excess CO2 from the atmosphere.

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